Propelled electrically from one side to the other.
The electrical phenomena show that there are two ions to the molecule, and that these ions are electrically charged.
There is a good system of electrically worked tramways, 52 m.
The class of furnaces heated by electrically incandescent materials has been divided by Borchers into two groups: (I) those in which the substance is heated by contact form at least so much carbide as would suffice, when diffused through the metal, to render it brittle, practically restricts the use of such processes to the production of aluminium alloys.
He draws a distinction between the lines of the trunk series to which he assigns neutral, and the lines of carriers the two branch series of which are electrically charged.
To-day, by reason of other uses to which electricity is applied, electrically deposited copper of high conductivity is in everincreasing demand, and commands a higher price than copper refined by fusion.
The wire may have at the upper end a plate called a " capacity area," electrically equivalent to an extension of the wire, or part of the wire may be bent over and carried horizontally.
The colloidal particles are electrically charged and become discharged by the ions of sodium, magnesium and calcium present in the sea-water.
For instance, to take the two solutions to which we have already referred, we have of ions between molecules at the instants of molecular collision only; during the rest of the life of the ions they were regarded as linked to each other to form electrically neutral molecules.
(2) As the concentration of the solutions increases, the ionization as measured electrically and the dissociation as measured osmotically might decrease more or less together, though, since the thermodynamic theory only holds when the solution is so dilute that the dissolved particles are beyond each other's sphere of action, there is much doubt whether this second relation is valid through any appreciable range of concentration.
It should be pointed out that no measurements on osmotic pressures or freezing points can do more than tell us that an excess of particles is present; such experiments can throw no light on the question whether or not those particles are electrically charged.
The specific gravity of cast tin is 7.29, of rolled tin 7.299, and of electrically deposited tin 7.143 to 7.178.
It is a most perfect non-conductor of electricity, and in its dry state the fibres frequently get so electrically excited as to seriously interfere with their working, so that it becomes necessary to moisten them with glycerin or soapy solutions.
It is only recently that owing to the introduction of carbon tubes heated electrically the excitement of the luminous vibrations of molecules by temperature alone has become an effective method for the study of their spectra even in the case of metals.
Jeans, 2 who showed that a shell-like constitution of the atom, the shells being electrically charged, 1 Proc. Roy.
While some of the phenomena seem to indicate that the projection of metallic vapours into the centre of the spark is a process of molecular diffusion independent of the mechanism of the discharge, the different velocities obtained with bismuth, and the probability that the vibrating systems are not electrically neutral, seem to indicate that the projected metallic particles are electrified and play some part in the discharge.
Nevertheless, it was found impracticable to smelt alumina electrically except in presence of copper, so that the Cowles furnace yielded, not the pure metal, but an alloy.
This compound possesses a heat of formation so much lower that electrically it needs but a voltage of 0.9 to decomplose it, and it is easily soluble in the fused sulphides of the alkali metals.
It consisted of a globe of sulphur fixed on an axis and rotated by a winch, and it was electrically excited by the friction of warm hands held against it.
Electric steel-making processes, or more accurately processes in which electrically heated furnaces are used, have developed very rapidly.